.Netcore HttpClient源码探究

2021-08-11

源码搜索与概述

搜索HttpClient源码 https://source.dot.net/#System.Net.Http/System/Net/Http/HttpClient.cs

1、HttpClient 依赖HttpClientHandler或HttpMessageHandler,HttpClientHandler也继承自HttpMessageHandler
2、HttpClientHandler依赖 SocketsHttpHandler,SocketsHttpHandler继承HttpMessageHandler,并支持跨平台
3、SocketsHttpHandler依赖HttpConnectionHandler或HttpAuthenticatedConnectionHandler,
这两个又依赖HttpConnectionPoolManager
4、HttpConnectionPoolManager维护ConcurrentDictionary<HttpConnectionKey, HttpConnectionPool>,调用HttpConnectionPool进行Send
5、HttpConnectionPool再根据Http3/http2或其他不同的配置再进行细分到不同的流去处理。

查看示例

1.可以看到HttpClient继承HttpMessageInvoker,并提供了三个不同参数的构造函数

public partial class HttpClient : HttpMessageInvoker

public HttpClient() : this(new HttpClientHandler())
        {
        }
 
        public HttpClient(HttpMessageHandler handler) : this(handler, true)
        {
        }
 
        public HttpClient(HttpMessageHandler handler, bool disposeHandler) : base(handler, disposeHandler)
        {
            _timeout = s_defaultTimeout;
            _maxResponseContentBufferSize = HttpContent.MaxBufferSize;
            _pendingRequestsCts = new CancellationTokenSource();
        }

首先跟踪第一个构造函数:public HttpClient() : this(new HttpClientHandler())


using HttpHandlerType = System.Net.Http.SocketsHttpHandler;

namespace System.Net.Http
{
public partial class HttpClientHandler : HttpMessageHandler
    {
        private readonly HttpHandlerType _underlyingHandler;
 
        private HttpMessageHandler Handler
#if TARGET_BROWSER
            { get; }
#else
            => _underlyingHandler;
#endif
 
 protected internal override HttpResponseMessage Send(HttpRequestMessage request, CancellationToken cancellationToken) =>
            Handler.Send(request, cancellationToken);
 
        protected internal override Task<HttpResponseMessage> SendAsync(HttpRequestMessage request, CancellationToken cancellationToken) =>
            Handler.SendAsync(request, cancellationToken);

可知依赖 HttpHandlerType=SocketsHttpHandler

[UnsupportedOSPlatform("browser")]
    public sealed class SocketsHttpHandler : HttpMessageHandler
    {
        private readonly HttpConnectionSettings _settings = new HttpConnectionSettings();
        private HttpMessageHandlerStage? _handler;
        private bool _disposed;
        private void CheckDisposed()
        {
            if (_disposed)
            {
                throw new ObjectDisposedException(nameof(SocketsHttpHandler));
            }
        }
 
        private void CheckDisposedOrStarted()
        {
            CheckDisposed();
            if (_handler != null)
            {
                throw new InvalidOperationException(SR.net_http_operation_started);
            }
        }

关注SendAsync

 protected internal override Task<HttpResponseMessage> SendAsync(HttpRequestMessage request, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        {
            if (request == null)
            {
                throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(request), SR.net_http_handler_norequest);
            }
            CheckDisposed();
            if (cancellationToken.IsCancellationRequested)
            {
                return Task.FromCanceled<HttpResponseMessage>(cancellationToken);
            }
 
            HttpMessageHandler handler = _handler ?? SetupHandlerChain();
 
            Exception? error = ValidateAndNormalizeRequest(request);
            if (error != null)
            {
                return Task.FromException<HttpResponseMessage>(error);
            }
 
            return handler.SendAsync(request, cancellationToken);
        }

//设置初始化handler:SetupHandlerChain

private HttpMessageHandlerStage SetupHandlerChain()
        {
            // Clone the settings to get a relatively consistent view that won't change after this point.
            // (This isn't entirely complete, as some of the collections it contains aren't currently deeply cloned.)
            HttpConnectionSettings settings = _settings.CloneAndNormalize();
 
            HttpConnectionPoolManager poolManager = new HttpConnectionPoolManager(settings);
 
            HttpMessageHandlerStage handler;
 
            if (settings._credentials == null)
            {
                handler = new HttpConnectionHandler(poolManager);
            }
            else
            {
                handler = new HttpAuthenticatedConnectionHandler(poolManager);
            }
 
            // DiagnosticsHandler is inserted before RedirectHandler so that trace propagation is done on redirects as well
            if (DiagnosticsHandler.IsGloballyEnabled() && settings._activityHeadersPropagator is DistributedContextPropagator propagator)
            {
                handler = new DiagnosticsHandler(handler, propagator, settings._allowAutoRedirect);
            }
 
            if (settings._allowAutoRedirect)
            {
                // Just as with WinHttpHandler, for security reasons, we do not support authentication on redirects
                // if the credential is anything other than a CredentialCache.
                // We allow credentials in a CredentialCache since they are specifically tied to URIs.
                HttpMessageHandlerStage redirectHandler =
                    (settings._credentials == null || settings._credentials is CredentialCache) ?
                    handler :
                    new HttpConnectionHandler(poolManager);        // will not authenticate
 
                handler = new RedirectHandler(settings._maxAutomaticRedirections, handler, redirectHandler);
            }
 
            if (settings._automaticDecompression != DecompressionMethods.None)
            {
                handler = new DecompressionHandler(settings._automaticDecompression, handler);
            }
 
            // Ensure a single handler is used for all requests.
            if (Interlocked.CompareExchange(ref _handler, handler, null) != null)
            {
                handler.Dispose();
            }
 
            return _handler;
        }

从上面可以看到根据HttpConnectionSettings._credentials 的配置进行不同的初始化

HttpConnectionSettings settings = _settings.CloneAndNormalize();
 
            HttpConnectionPoolManager poolManager = new HttpConnectionPoolManager(settings);
 
            HttpMessageHandlerStage handler;
 
            if (settings._credentials == null)
            {
                handler = new HttpConnectionHandler(poolManager);
            }
            else
            {
                handler = new HttpAuthenticatedConnectionHandler(poolManager);
            }

关注HttpConnectionHandler和HttpAuthenticatedConnectionHandler,均依赖HttpConnectionPoolManager

 internal sealed class HttpConnectionHandler : HttpMessageHandlerStage
    {
        private readonly HttpConnectionPoolManager _poolManager;
 
        public HttpConnectionHandler(HttpConnectionPoolManager poolManager)
        {
            _poolManager = poolManager;
        }
 
        internal override ValueTask<HttpResponseMessage> SendAsync(HttpRequestMessage request, bool async, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        {
            return _poolManager.SendAsync(request, async, doRequestAuth: false, cancellationToken);
        }
 
        protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            if (disposing)
            {
                _poolManager.Dispose();
            }
 
            base.Dispose(disposing);
        }
    }

可见HttpConnectionPoolManager 维护了一个链接池。

public HttpConnectionPoolManager(HttpConnectionSettings settings)
        {
            _settings = settings;
            _pools = new ConcurrentDictionary<HttpConnectionKey, HttpConnectionPool>();

管理链接的部分:

 public ValueTask<HttpResponseMessage> SendAsyncCore(HttpRequestMessage request, Uri? proxyUri, bool async, bool doRequestAuth, bool isProxyConnect, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        {
            HttpConnectionKey key = GetConnectionKey(request, proxyUri, isProxyConnect);
 
            HttpConnectionPool? pool;
            while (!_pools.TryGetValue(key, out pool))
            {
                pool = new HttpConnectionPool(this, key.Kind, key.Host, key.Port, key.SslHostName, key.ProxyUri);
 
                if (_cleaningTimer == null)
                {
                    // There's no cleaning timer, which means we're not adding connections into pools, but we still need
                    // the pool object for this request.  We don't need or want to add the pool to the pools, though,
                    // since we don't want it to sit there forever, which it would without the cleaning timer.
                    break;
                }
 
                if (_pools.TryAdd(key, pool))
                {
                    // We need to ensure the cleanup timer is running if it isn't
                    // already now that we added a new connection pool.
                    lock (SyncObj)
                    {
                        if (!_timerIsRunning)
                        {
                            SetCleaningTimer(_cleanPoolTimeout);
                        }
                    }
                    break;
                }
 
                // We created a pool and tried to add it to our pools, but some other thread got there before us.
                // We don't need to Dispose the pool, as that's only needed when it contains connections
                // that need to be closed.
            }
 
            return pool.SendAsync(request, async, doRequestAuth, cancellationToken);
        }

可以看到由HttpConnectionPool发起SendAsync调用
https://source.dot.net/#System.Net.Http/System/Net/Http/SocketsHttpHandler/HttpConnectionPool.cs,155362accc97d7ca


 public HttpConnectionPool(HttpConnectionPoolManager poolManager, HttpConnectionKind kind, string? host, int port, string? sslHostName, Uri? proxyUri)
        {
            _poolManager = poolManager;
            _kind = kind;
            _proxyUri = proxyUri;
            _maxHttp11Connections = Settings._maxConnectionsPerServer;
 
            if (host != null)
            {
                _originAuthority = new HttpAuthority(host, port);
            }
 
            _http2Enabled = _poolManager.Settings._maxHttpVersion >= HttpVersion.Version20;
 
            if (IsHttp3Supported())
            {
                _http3Enabled = _poolManager.Settings._maxHttpVersion >= HttpVersion.Version30 && (_poolManager.Settings._quicImplementationProvider ?? QuicImplementationProviders.Default).IsSupported;
            }
 
            switch (kind)
            {
                case HttpConnectionKind.Http:
                    Debug.Assert(host != null);
                    Debug.Assert(port != 0);
                    Debug.Assert(sslHostName == null);
                    Debug.Assert(proxyUri == null);
 
                    _http3Enabled = false;
                    break;
 
                case HttpConnectionKind.Https:
                    Debug.Assert(host != null);
                    Debug.Assert(port != 0);
                    Debug.Assert(sslHostName != null);
                    Debug.Assert(proxyUri == null);
                    break;
 
                case HttpConnectionKind.Proxy:
                    Debug.Assert(host == null);
                    Debug.Assert(port == 0);
                    Debug.Assert(sslHostName == null);
                    Debug.Assert(proxyUri != null);
 
                    _http2Enabled = false;
                    _http3Enabled = false;
                    break;
 
                case HttpConnectionKind.ProxyTunnel:
                    Debug.Assert(host != null);
                    Debug.Assert(port != 0);
                    Debug.Assert(sslHostName == null);
                    Debug.Assert(proxyUri != null);
 
                    _http2Enabled = false;
                    _http3Enabled = false;
                    break;
 
                case HttpConnectionKind.SslProxyTunnel:
                    Debug.Assert(host != null);
                    Debug.Assert(port != 0);
                    Debug.Assert(sslHostName != null);
                    Debug.Assert(proxyUri != null);
 
                    _http3Enabled = false; // TODO: how do we tunnel HTTP3?
                    break;
 
                case HttpConnectionKind.ProxyConnect:
                    Debug.Assert(host != null);
                    Debug.Assert(port != 0);
                    Debug.Assert(sslHostName == null);
                    Debug.Assert(proxyUri != null);
 
                    // Don't enforce the max connections limit on proxy tunnels; this would mean that connections to different origin servers
                    // would compete for the same limited number of connections.
                    // We will still enforce this limit on the user of the tunnel (i.e. ProxyTunnel or SslProxyTunnel).
                    _maxHttp11Connections = int.MaxValue;
 
                    _http2Enabled = false;
                    _http3Enabled = false;
                    break;
 
                case HttpConnectionKind.SocksTunnel:
                case HttpConnectionKind.SslSocksTunnel:
                    Debug.Assert(host != null);
                    Debug.Assert(port != 0);
                    Debug.Assert(proxyUri != null);
 
                    _http3Enabled = false; // TODO: SOCKS supports UDP and may be used for HTTP3
                    break;
 
                default:
                    Debug.Fail("Unknown HttpConnectionKind in HttpConnectionPool.ctor");
                    break;
            }
 
            if (!_http3Enabled)
            {
                // Avoid parsing Alt-Svc headers if they won't be used.
                _altSvcEnabled = false;
            }
 
            string? hostHeader = null;
            if (_originAuthority != null)
            {
                // Precalculate ASCII bytes for Host header
                // Note that if _host is null, this is a (non-tunneled) proxy connection, and we can't cache the hostname.
                hostHeader =
                    (_originAuthority.Port != (sslHostName == null ? DefaultHttpPort : DefaultHttpsPort)) ?
                    $"{_originAuthority.IdnHost}:{_originAuthority.Port}" :
                    _originAuthority.IdnHost;
 
                // Note the IDN hostname should always be ASCII, since it's already been IDNA encoded.
                _hostHeaderValueBytes = Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes(hostHeader);
                Debug.Assert(Encoding.ASCII.GetString(_hostHeaderValueBytes) == hostHeader);
                if (sslHostName == null)
                {
                    _http2EncodedAuthorityHostHeader = HPackEncoder.EncodeLiteralHeaderFieldWithoutIndexingToAllocatedArray(H2StaticTable.Authority, hostHeader);
                    _http3EncodedAuthorityHostHeader = QPackEncoder.EncodeLiteralHeaderFieldWithStaticNameReferenceToArray(H3StaticTable.Authority, hostHeader);
                }
            }
 
            if (sslHostName != null)
            {
                _sslOptionsHttp11 = ConstructSslOptions(poolManager, sslHostName);
                _sslOptionsHttp11.ApplicationProtocols = null;
 
                if (_http2Enabled)
                {
                    _sslOptionsHttp2 = ConstructSslOptions(poolManager, sslHostName);
                    _sslOptionsHttp2.ApplicationProtocols = s_http2ApplicationProtocols;
                    _sslOptionsHttp2Only = ConstructSslOptions(poolManager, sslHostName);
                    _sslOptionsHttp2Only.ApplicationProtocols = s_http2OnlyApplicationProtocols;
 
                    // Note:
                    // The HTTP/2 specification states:
                    //   "A deployment of HTTP/2 over TLS 1.2 MUST disable renegotiation.
                    //    An endpoint MUST treat a TLS renegotiation as a connection error (Section 5.4.1)
                    //    of type PROTOCOL_ERROR."
                    // which suggests we should do:
                    //   _sslOptionsHttp2.AllowRenegotiation = false;
                    // However, if AllowRenegotiation is set to false, that will also prevent
                    // renegotation if the server denies the HTTP/2 request and causes a
                    // downgrade to HTTP/1.1, and the current APIs don't provide a mechanism
                    // by which AllowRenegotiation could be set back to true in that case.
                    // For now, if an HTTP/2 server erroneously issues a renegotiation, we'll
                    // allow it.
 
                    Debug.Assert(hostHeader != null);
                    _http2EncodedAuthorityHostHeader = HPackEncoder.EncodeLiteralHeaderFieldWithoutIndexingToAllocatedArray(H2StaticTable.Authority, hostHeader);
                    _http3EncodedAuthorityHostHeader = QPackEncoder.EncodeLiteralHeaderFieldWithStaticNameReferenceToArray(H3StaticTable.Authority, hostHeader);
                }
 
                if (IsHttp3Supported())
                {
                    if (_http3Enabled)
                    {
                        _sslOptionsHttp3 = ConstructSslOptions(poolManager, sslHostName);
                        _sslOptionsHttp3.ApplicationProtocols = s_http3ApplicationProtocols;
                    }
                }
            }
 
            // Set up for PreAuthenticate.  Access to this cache is guarded by a lock on the cache itself.
            if (_poolManager.Settings._preAuthenticate)
            {
                PreAuthCredentials = new CredentialCache();
            }
 
            if (NetEventSource.Log.IsEnabled()) Trace($"{this}");
        }

发起调用

 public ValueTask<HttpResponseMessage> SendAsync(HttpRequestMessage request, bool async, bool doRequestAuth, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        {
            if (doRequestAuth && Settings._credentials != null)
            {
                return AuthenticationHelper.SendWithRequestAuthAsync(request, async, Settings._credentials, Settings._preAuthenticate, this, cancellationToken);
            }
 
            return SendWithProxyAuthAsync(request, async, doRequestAuth, cancellationToken);
        }

 public ValueTask<HttpResponseMessage> SendWithProxyAuthAsync(HttpRequestMessage request, bool async, bool doRequestAuth, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        {
            if (DoProxyAuth && ProxyCredentials is not null)
            {
                return AuthenticationHelper.SendWithProxyAuthAsync(request, _proxyUri!, async, ProxyCredentials, doRequestAuth, this, cancellationToken);
            }
 
            return SendWithRetryAsync(request, async, doRequestAuth, cancellationToken);
        }

public async ValueTask<HttpResponseMessage> SendWithRetryAsync(HttpRequestMessage request, bool async, bool doRequestAuth, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        {
            int retryCount = 0;
            while (true)
            {
                // Loop on connection failures (or other problems like version downgrade) and retry if possible.
                try
                {
                    return await SendAndProcessAltSvcAsync(request, async, doRequestAuth, cancellationToken).ConfigureAwait(false);
                }
                catch (HttpRequestException e) when (e.AllowRetry == RequestRetryType.RetryOnConnectionFailure)
                {
                    Debug.Assert(retryCount >= 0 && retryCount <= MaxConnectionFailureRetries);
 
                    if (retryCount == MaxConnectionFailureRetries)
                    {
                        if (NetEventSource.Log.IsEnabled())
                        {
                            Trace($"MaxConnectionFailureRetries limit of {MaxConnectionFailureRetries} hit. Retryable request will not be retried. Exception: {e}");
                        }
 
                        throw;
                    }
 
                    retryCount++;
 
                    if (NetEventSource.Log.IsEnabled())
                    {
                        Trace($"Retry attempt {retryCount} after connection failure. Connection exception: {e}");
                    }
 
                    // Eat exception and try again.
                }
                catch (HttpRequestException e) when (e.AllowRetry == RequestRetryType.RetryOnLowerHttpVersion)
                {
                    // Throw if fallback is not allowed by the version policy.
                    if (request.VersionPolicy != HttpVersionPolicy.RequestVersionOrLower)
                    {
                        throw new HttpRequestException(SR.Format(SR.net_http_requested_version_server_refused, request.Version, request.VersionPolicy), e);
                    }
 
                    if (NetEventSource.Log.IsEnabled())
                    {
                        Trace($"Retrying request because server requested version fallback: {e}");
                    }
 
                    // Eat exception and try again on a lower protocol version.
                    request.Version = HttpVersion.Version11;
                }
                catch (HttpRequestException e) when (e.AllowRetry == RequestRetryType.RetryOnStreamLimitReached)
                {
                    if (NetEventSource.Log.IsEnabled())
                    {
                        Trace($"Retrying request on another HTTP/2 connection after active streams limit is reached on existing one: {e}");
                    }
 
                    // Eat exception and try again.
                }
            }
        }

 private async ValueTask<HttpResponseMessage> SendAndProcessAltSvcAsync(HttpRequestMessage request, bool async, bool doRequestAuth, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        {
            HttpResponseMessage response = await DetermineVersionAndSendAsync(request, async, doRequestAuth, cancellationToken).ConfigureAwait(false);
 
            // Check for the Alt-Svc header, to upgrade to HTTP/3.
            if (_altSvcEnabled && response.Headers.TryGetValues(KnownHeaders.AltSvc.Descriptor, out IEnumerable<string>? altSvcHeaderValues))
            {
                HandleAltSvc(altSvcHeaderValues, response.Headers.Age);
            }
 
            return response;
        }

private async ValueTask<HttpResponseMessage> DetermineVersionAndSendAsync(HttpRequestMessage request, bool async, bool doRequestAuth, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        {
            HttpResponseMessage? response;
 
            if (IsHttp3Supported())
            {
                response = await TrySendUsingHttp3Async(request, async, doRequestAuth, cancellationToken).ConfigureAwait(false);
                if (response is not null)
                {
                    return response;
                }
            }
 
            // We cannot use HTTP/3. Do not continue if downgrade is not allowed.
            if (request.Version.Major >= 3 && request.VersionPolicy != HttpVersionPolicy.RequestVersionOrLower)
            {
                throw GetVersionException(request, 3);
            }
 
            response = await TrySendUsingHttp2Async(request, async, doRequestAuth, cancellationToken).ConfigureAwait(false);
            if (response is not null)
            {
                return response;
            }
 
            // We cannot use HTTP/2. Do not continue if downgrade is not allowed.
            if (request.Version.Major >= 2 && request.VersionPolicy != HttpVersionPolicy.RequestVersionOrLower)
            {
                throw GetVersionException(request, 2);
            }
 
            return await SendUsingHttp11Async(request, async, doRequestAuth, cancellationToken).ConfigureAwait(false);
        }

 [SupportedOSPlatform("windows")]
        [SupportedOSPlatform("linux")]
        [SupportedOSPlatform("macos")]
        private async ValueTask<Http3Connection> GetHttp3ConnectionAsync(HttpRequestMessage request, HttpAuthority authority, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        {
            Debug.Assert(_kind == HttpConnectionKind.Https);
            Debug.Assert(_http3Enabled == true);
 
            Http3Connection? http3Connection = Volatile.Read(ref _http3Connection);
 
            if (http3Connection != null)
            {
                if (CheckExpirationOnGet(http3Connection) || http3Connection.Authority != authority)
                {
                    // Connection expired.
                    if (NetEventSource.Log.IsEnabled()) http3Connection.Trace("Found expired HTTP3 connection.");
                    http3Connection.Dispose();
                    InvalidateHttp3Connection(http3Connection);
                }
                else
                {
                    // Connection exists and it is still good to use.
                    if (NetEventSource.Log.IsEnabled()) Trace("Using existing HTTP3 connection.");
                    _usedSinceLastCleanup = true;
                    return http3Connection;
                }
            }
 
            // Ensure that the connection creation semaphore is created
            if (_http3ConnectionCreateLock == null)
            {
                lock (SyncObj)
                {
                    if (_http3ConnectionCreateLock == null)
                    {
                        _http3ConnectionCreateLock = new SemaphoreSlim(1);
                    }
                }
            }
 
            await _http3ConnectionCreateLock.WaitAsync(cancellationToken).ConfigureAwait(false);
            try
            {
                if (_http3Connection != null)
                {
                    // Someone beat us to creating the connection.
 
                    if (NetEventSource.Log.IsEnabled())
                    {
                        Trace("Using existing HTTP3 connection.");
                    }
 
                    return _http3Connection;
                }
 
                if (NetEventSource.Log.IsEnabled())
                {
                    Trace("Attempting new HTTP3 connection.");
                }
 
                QuicConnection quicConnection;
                try
                {
                    quicConnection = await ConnectHelper.ConnectQuicAsync(request, Settings._quicImplementationProvider ?? QuicImplementationProviders.Default, new DnsEndPoint(authority.IdnHost, authority.Port), _sslOptionsHttp3!, cancellationToken).ConfigureAwait(false);
                }
                catch
                {
                    // Disables HTTP/3 until server announces it can handle it via Alt-Svc.
                    BlocklistAuthority(authority);
                    throw;
                }
 
                //TODO: NegotiatedApplicationProtocol not yet implemented.
#if false
                if (quicConnection.NegotiatedApplicationProtocol != SslApplicationProtocol.Http3)
                {
                    BlocklistAuthority(authority);
                    throw new HttpRequestException("QUIC connected but no HTTP/3 indicated via ALPN.", null, RequestRetryType.RetryOnSameOrNextProxy);
                }
#endif
 
                http3Connection = new Http3Connection(this, _originAuthority, authority, quicConnection);
                _http3Connection = http3Connection;
 
                if (NetEventSource.Log.IsEnabled())
                {
                    Trace("New HTTP3 connection established.");
                }
 
                return http3Connection;
            }
            finally
            {
                _http3ConnectionCreateLock.Release();
            }
        }